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09 SEP 2022 (FRI)

Updated: Sep 14, 2022

地理卓越學術講座系列


史前人類探索和適應青藏高原嚴酷環境

Pre-historic humans’ exploration of and adaptation to the adverse environment on Tibetan Plateau


陳發虎院士 Prof. Academician Chen Fahu

陳發虎,1962年生,自然地理學博士,英國利物浦大學博士後,中國科學院院士,發展中國家科學院院士,中科院青藏高原研究所所長,中國地理學會理事長。獲國家傑出青年基金、中國青年科技獎、全國先進工作者、全國傑出專業技術人才稱號等,曾負責國家基金委創新群體、國家國際合作團隊負責人,曾任中科院人才計劃研究員、教育部“長江學者”特聘教授。任多家國內外刊物主編、執行主編、副主編或編委。長期從事氣候變化、環境變化與環境考古研究,目前聚焦氣候環境變化及其與絲路文明興衰、史前人類定居青藏高原研究。在Nature、Science、NCC、NC、NS、PNAS、SB、《中國科學》等發表SCI論文300多篇,SCI引用1.7萬次,H指數65,是國際高被引科學家。成果獲省部級科技一等獎7項,國家自然科學二等獎2項(第一完成人)。


English version is upcoming.



Date: 09 September 2022 (Friday)

Time: 15:00 – 16:30 (HKT)

Venue: via Zoom

Language: Putonghua (Simultaneous Interpretation in English)


Registration link: https://hkuems1.hku.hk/hkuems/ec_hdetail.aspx?guest=Y&ueid=83727


Zoom link: https://hku.zoom.us/j/93134619439?pwd=TzR3T1loaVFESFRLeHhDdm51UlFnUT09

(Zoom details will be provided upon successful registration)


Abstract:

青藏高原主體位於海拔4000m以上,總體高寒缺氧,從東南到西北地勢逐步升高,除東南部具有山地森林植被外,主體植被包括高山草甸-高山草原-荒漠草原以及荒漠等,是全球人類最難生存和生活的地區之一。目前在青藏高原生活著約300萬人,以具有適應缺氧的EPAS1等變異基因的藏族和夏爾巴人為主體。人類征服和定居青藏高原的歷史和機制歷來是學術界關注的重點。本報告將人類探索和定居青藏高原的歷史劃分成以下幾個階段。階段1-丹尼索瓦人生理適應高寒缺氧環境階段:丹尼索瓦人在長期佔據高原的歷史中形成了高寒缺氧適應性基因,史前人類獲得了能夠在高海拔缺氧環境生存的生理機制。階段2-現代智人“借”基因探索高原環境階段:現代智人與丹人混血獲得生理適應,主動探索高原腹地。階段3-細石器人群季節性漁獵利用高原資源階段:末次冰消期開始較大群體季節性對高原動物資源的利用,開啟了人類對高原環境的文化適應。階段4-農業發展促進人群大規模常年定居高原階段:東西方交流帶來麥作農業,促使粟作農業人群革新農業技術,發展青稞-游牧經濟,逐步形成了對高原極端環境的文化適應。階段5-人類活動和氣候變化雙驅動影響高原環境階段:人類主動改造高原極端環境,氣候變化強烈影響高原社會經濟發展,前吐蕃(西部的象雄王國、雅江的雅礱部落和東部的蘇毘部落)和吐蕃帝國時期形成青藏高原獨特的高寒文明。本講座主要涉及前三階段。


The main area of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is located at an altitude of more than 4000 m, with the terrain rising generally from the southeast to the northwest. Except for the mountain forest vegetation in the southeast, the main vegetation on TP includes alpine meadows, alpine grasslands, desert grasslands and deserts. Due to the adverse conditions, such as resource scarcity, low temperatures and hypoxia, TP is one of the most challenging areas for humans to survive. There are currently about 3 million people living on TP, mainly Tibetans and Sherpas who have special genes associated with hypoxia adaptation, such as EPAS1. The history and mechanism of human exploration and settlement on the TP had always attracted academic attention. This report divides the history of human exploration and settlement on the TP into the following stages. Stage 1: Physiological adaptation of Denisovans to low temperature and hypoxia environments. Denisovans may have obtained hypoxia adaptation genes in the long history of occupying the TP, which helped archaic hominins acquire physiological mechanisms capable of surviving in high-altitude environments. Stage 2: Homo sapiens “borrowed” genes from Denisovans to explore the high altitude of TP. By gene flow form Denisovans, Homo sapiens may obtain adaptive genes to support their active exploration of the central TP. Stage 3: The microlithic hunter-gathers acquired resources on TP through seasonal migration. Since the last deglaciation period, more and more microlithic hunter-gathers appeared on the TP and fully use animal resources on the TP through seasonal fishing and hunting, which indicates the start of the cultural adaptation of humans to the high-altitude environment. Stage 4: Agricultural development promoted large-scale permanent settlement on the TP. The East-West transcontinental exchange culture brought wheat and barley, which contributed to the agricultural technological innovation of millet farmers. Through the development of a high-altitude barley-nomadic economy, Neolithic humans gradually formed their special cultural adaptation to the TP. Stage 5: Both human activities and climate change drive the impacts on the TP environment. Humans have taken the initiative to transform the extreme environment of the TP. Meanwhile, climate change has strongly affected the social and economic development of humans on the TP. Under this background, the former Tubo (the Zhang-Zhung Kingdom in the west, the Yalong tribe in the Yajiang River and the Supi tribe in the East) and the Tubo Empire formed a unique alpine civilization on the TP. This report only focuses on the first three stages.


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